16 April 2020

Prevention of influenza and ARVI, coronavirus infection.

Influenza is a type of acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI), characterized by a particularly severe course, the presence of severe complications, and can be fatal. Mostly this applies to certain groups of people:

children (especially children of tender age);

elderly people (over 60 years old);

diseased people with chronic severe heart (heart defects, coronary heart disease, severe arterial hypertension) and lungs diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema).

Therefore, it is precisely these categories of people that should primarily use the means of preventing influenza and should be especially carefully observed by doctors in case of influenza.

The complex nature of protection against influenza implies, first of all, specific prophylaxis with the use of vaccines, non-specific prophylaxis with the use of medications, holding anti-epidemic measures in foci of infection (isolation of diseased people from healthy people, effective use of personal protective equipment (gauze masks on the face), and conducting recreational and restorative events.

Acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI), ARI (acute respiratory infection) is a common group of viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract, a bacterial infection may join in the course of the development of the disease. The main symptoms of ARVI are runny nose, cough, sneezing, headache, sore throat, fatigue.

Today there is a wide selection of medications for the prevention of influenza and ARVI. However, a doctor should give a recommendation for the prescription of a specific medication.

The main measures for the prevention of ARVI are hardening, proper nutrition, rational drinking regimen, reduction in alcohol and smoking, and avoidance of hypothermia.

Regular ventilation of the premise is an important condition in the prevention of influenza and ARVI.

And most importantly – remember the rules of personal hygiene. Avoid contact with people who look sick (often sneeze, cough, have runny nose). Avoid being in crowded places during the epidemy, do not attend mass events, especially those that are held in premises.

Prevention of coronavirus infection.

The main preventive measures that everyone should follow:

Do not touch face with hands. In half the cases, infection occurs through the penetration of the virus through the mucous membranes – eyes, mouth, nose.

Wash hands. Hands should be washed as often as possible, and this should be done within 40–60 seconds. If you wash your hands in a public place, after washing your hands, use a disposable towel that you used to wipe your hands to turn off the water.

Use antiseptics. The time of hands processing is 20–30 seconds. But when buying these funds, it is important to pay attention to the composition. Recommended concentration is 80% ethanol, 1,45% glycerol, 0,125% hydrogen peroxide.

If you cover your mouth and nose during sneezing and coughing, the spread of COVID-19 virus in the air can be prevented! You need to cough and sneeze into a napkin, and if it is not at hand – into the bend of the elbow. After using the napkin, you must immediately throw it into the trash container.

It is necessary to wear a mask. This product is intended for sick people, as well as for those who care for the sick. The mask should fit snugly to the face, there should be no gaps. You need to change the mask every 2–3 hours, you can not reuse it.

Avoid close contact, stay on self-isolation or keep away from other people at a distance of at least 1 meter. Avoid shaking hands and hugs.

Ventilating the premise can reduce the viral load.

The risk of infection after 65 years increases, especially severe viral infection occurs in people with chronic diseases. Older people are advised to stay at home and limit close contact with other people.

Rules of conduct for self-isolation.

The self-isolation regime must be observed for 14 days for your own safety and the safety of those who around you.

In case of self-isolation, you need to:

stay home for 14 days. Do not visit the place of work/study, as well as places of mass stay of people (shops, cafes, shopping centers and others);

ensure the delivery of products, essentials, excluding direct contact with the person who delivered the necessary goods. It is advisable to carry out the pay off using a bank card, not cash;

limit as much as possible any contacts, including contacts with family members living with you in the same apartment: stay in a separate room, in the absence of a separate room – ensure a distance of at least 1,5 m from other family members;

wash hands with soap thoroughly and for at least 20 seconds, not forgetting about the area between the fingers, around the nails, cuticles and thumb. You can use an antiseptic to treat your hands;

ventilate the premise where you are as often as possible, carry out wet cleaning in the premise, paying particular attention to treating of door handles, furniture, telephones, control panels, computer keyboards, mice and other gadgets, sanitary equipment and other items;

use disposable handkerchiefs or napkins and dispose them in an closed garbage container or plastic bag.

If there is an urgent need to leave the apartment (for example, visiting the nearest grocery store or pharmacy to purchase the necessary goods (if it is not possible to use the services of online stores to purchase them); removing waste to the nearest waste collection point) – use a medical mask. Contacts with the elderly people (60 years and older), people with chronic diseases of the heart, lungs, diabetes, etc. should be minimized (excluded).

If you are not alone in the apartment:

you must have separate towels, separate bedding, separate dishes;

if it is necessary to transfer items (dishes, clothes, etc.) to family members, exclude direct contact;

carry out laundry separately from other family members;

when moving around the apartment – use a medical mask, touch surfaces (door handles, mechanisms of sanitary equipment and others) using a disposable napkin.

In the case of mild ARI symptoms during the period of self-isolation (increased body temperature up to 38°C, runny nose, sore throat, dry cough, etc.), stay at home and call the registry, help desk or call center of the healthcare organization at the place of residence (place of stay) and let them know what is bothering you, leave your contacts (surname, first name & patronymic, address, phone number), a medical professional will contact you, follow his instructions.

If you feel worse (increase in body temperature above 38°С, shortness of breath, general malaise), call the emergency medical team by phone 103. Be sure to inform the dispatcher that you were in contact with a patient with a coronavirus infection or arrived from an epidemiologically unfavorable country for C0VID-19 infection (tell the arrival date to the dispatcher).

When using medical masks (disposable), the following rules must be observed:

Treat hands with an alcohol-based product or wash with soap.

Holding the mask by the ties or elastic bands, bring it close to the face with the white side inward and fix it with the ties (elastic bands) in the position when the lower part of the face is completely covered – both mouth and nose.

At the end, give the desired shape to a flexible strip (nose clip), ensuring a snug fit of mask to the face.

Remove the product by holding the ties (elastic band) at the back, without touching the front of the mask.

Discard the removed mask in a closable waste container.

Wash hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based product.

If necessary, put on a new mask following steps 1-3.

Use the mask no more than for two hours.

Change the mask immediately if it gets wet (soak), even if less than two hours have passed since use.

Do not touch the fixed mask with your hands.

Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water or use an alcohol-based product after touching the mask that is being used or used mask.

Disposable masks cannot be reused.

The reusable mask must be washed separately, after washing it should be ironed with a hot iron on both sides.

The procedure for calling a doctor at home.

If the patient needs to call a doctor at home (with symptoms of ARVI, an exacerbation of a chronic disease, to adjust treatment or for another reason), it is necessary to call the registry, help desk or call center of the clinic. The medical registrar (employee of the call center) will definitely clarify the reason for the call, the presence of symptoms of ARVI/influenza and the contact phone number, and whether it is necessary to write a prescription (in case of calling because of a chronic disease).

Then, a decision will be made on the procedure for providing medical care in a specific situation: visiting a polyclinic, a doctor’s or doctor’s assistant’s visit at home, calling an ambulance team, which the patient will be informed about by phone. Patients with chronic diseases that belong to the risk group are provided with delivery of prescriptions for medications to continue treatment at home.

Actions to call the ambulance team in case of deterioration in general state.

In case of deterioration in general state of a person who was self-isolated, for example, in case of the development of shortness of breath and an increase in body temperature above 37°C, when calling an ambulance team, it is necessary to report that the patient is a contact person for COVID-19 infection.

In case of deterioration in general state due to reasons unrelated to COVID-19 infection and/or acute respiratory illness (increased blood pressure, heart pain, abdominal pain, etc.), the ambulance team is called in the usual manner, the feldsher in receiving and transferring calls of ambulance will ask clarifying questions in accordance with the existing algorithm.